Volume 8

History, biology, and cultureof Crocus sativus: Overview and perspectives, I. Mzabri, K. Charif, M. Rimani, N. Kouddane, A. Boukroute, A. Berrichi, Arab. J. Chem. Environ. Res. 08 (2021) 1-28
1. Laboratory for Agricultural Production Improvement, Biotechnology and Environment, Faculty of Science. Mohammed Premier University, BP717, 60000 Oujda, Morocco
e-mail: btissammzabri@gmail.com; khadijachariff@gmail.com; kouddanen@gmail.com; boukroute@hotmail.com; abdel20759@yahoo.fr

2. Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biotechnology (LBB), Faculty of Sciences, University Mohammed Premier, Oujda, Morocco
e-mail: rimaniimaria@gmail.com

Abstract
SAFRAN (Crocus Sativus L.) is an autumnal flowering plant of great nutritional, economic and environmental value. It is a triploid species (2N = 3x = 24) that fails to produce seeds and therefore it spreads exclusively by corms. Although the demand for Safran on the international market has increased in recent years, the cultivation zone of this spice is concentrated in some terroirs with primitive agronomic practices. The reason which research activities have been launched to develop new spice production technologies in many countries. Indeed, the quantitative and qualitative production of saffron is influenced by several factors such as soil, climate, and anthropogenic operations. This bibliographic review deliberates on the latest agronomic works done on Saffron for the promotion of this culture as a profitable, viable, and sustainable culture.

Some 4-dimethylaminopyridinium-based ionic liquids and/or salts. Part I: efficient green ultrasound synthesis, characterization, in silico prediction analysis, toxicity and antimicrobial evaluation, S. M. Almutairi, W. S. El-Sayed, P. K. Sahu, K.K. Thasneema, P. K, Sahu, M. S. Thayyil, B. Hammouti and M. Messali, Arab. J. Chem. Environ. Res. 08 (2021) 29-46
1  King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh 11442, P.O.Box 6086, Saudi Arabia
2  Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
3  School of Study in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011, Madhya Pradesh, India
4  Department of Physics, University of Calicut, Kerala, India
5  Department of Industrial Chemsitry, Jiwaji University Gwalior 474011, Madhya Pradesh, India
6 Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Environment (LCAE), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science.   Mohammed Premier University, BP717, 60000 Oujda, Morocco.
7 Department of Chemistry, Taibah University, 30002, Al-Madina Al-Mounawara, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
An eco-friendly ultrasound-assisted procedure for the preparation of twenty functionalized pyridinium ionic liquids (ILs) 1-20 is described. The characterization of the newly compounds is confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 11B NMR, 19F NMR, 31P NMR and mass analysis. All synthesized compounds were screened for some applications, namely, antimicrobial activity and the results are very promising. Preliminary structure activity relationship (SAR) studies have been performed to identify the relation between molecular structure and activity. In silico Analysis of ionic liquids and/or salts was carried out based on ADME, Lipinski rule, drug likeness, toxicity profiles and other physico-chemical properties. All compounds were safe in toxicity profile and computed LD50 values were in accepted range (2.63–2.87 mol/kg). In silico data has revealed that all ionic liquids and/or salts were in good agreement in term of bioavailability.

Double beam UV-Vis spectrophotometric determination of sunset yellow (E110) in soft drink and ice cream samples at the local Saudi markets, A. F. Alghamdi, A. T. Bello, A. A. Afqi,  Arab. J. Chem. Environ. Res. 08 (2021) 47-57

Chemistry Department, College of Science, Taibah University, Medina, KSA
e-mail: alifh2006@hotmail.com

Abstract
The spectrophotometric behavior of  sunset yellow (E110) was investigated using quartz cell and distilled water as a solvent; over the wavelength range of 400 nm to 800 nm, spectral band width of 2 nm, speed scan 120 nm/min, Xenon lamp and 2 nm graph high. It was given a well-developed spectrophotometric peak over this wavelength range. The repeatability, stability, calibration curve and detection limit were also evaluated. The concentration of 5×10-5 mol L-1 of E110 was repeated five times for the repeatability study, yielded the relative standard deviation (RSD%) of 0.042%. The stability for the analytical signal of the E110 concentration 5×10-5 mol L-1 was monitored for 90 minutes, resulted the spectrophotometric signals approximately fixed within this period. A calibration curve was studied over the range of 1×10-5 - 1×10-4 mol L-1 for the (E110) dye to be resulted in a linear relationship with 0.984 correlation coefficient (r2) for six measurements (n=6). Detection limit (LOD) was calculated to be 5.77×10-8 mol L-1 (0.026 ppm). Spectrophotometric technique was applied for the determination of sunset yellow (E110) in soft drinks and ice cream samples of the local Saudi markets.                                                                                        

Application of the quantum chemical descriptor to thequantitative structure-activity of the ascorbic acid molecule: DFT and MP2 survey, H. EL Ouafy 1, T. EL Ouafy *2, M. Oubenali 1, M. Mbarki 1, A. EL Haimouti 3, M. Echajia 1, Arab. J. Chem. Environ. Res. 08 (2021) 58-69

1Laboratory of Organic and Analytical Chemistry, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Beni Mellal, Morocco

2 Laboratory of Organic and Analytical Chemistry, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Polydisciplinary Faculty, Khouribga, Morocco; e-mail: tarikelouafy@gmail.com

3 Laboratory of Chemistry, Modeling and Environmental Sciences, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Polydisciplinary Faculty, Khouribga, Morocco

Abstract
In this work, we used B3LYP / 6-311G (d, p) to determine the chemical descriptor, the ionization potential (I), the electron affinity (A), the chemical potential (μ), the chemical hardness (η). Nonlinear optical descriptors (NLO) such as dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α), first hyperpolarizability (β) and second hyperpolarizability (γ), 3D maps of HOMO and LUMO orbitals, lengths and Bond angles of ascorbic acid are also determined by both DFT and MP2 (The Møller-Plesset theory of order 2 perturbation). Both DFT and MP2 methods yielded almost the same value of dipole moment. The DFT and MP2 methods gave slightly different values for polarization, hyperpolarizability and second hyperpolarization because of the number of variables taken into consideration in the calculations by each method. The negative and positive regions of ascorbic acid were determined by molecular electrostatic potential.

Rocks in Arab-Islamic scientific heritage, K. EL GHALBI, Arab. J. Chem. Environ. Res. 08 (2021) 70-82

1 Department of Geography, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences. Moulay Ismaïl University, B.P:11202, Zitoun, Meknes, Morocco.; e-mail: elghalbi@hotmail.com ; K.elghalbi@umi.ac.ma,

Abstract
Jabir ibn Hayyan (8th century) is considered one of the firstto divide rocks according to their origins. he clearly distinguished between three categories of rocks. Al-Jahidh (9th century) spoke about the volcanoes and fire rocks, wondering about some interpretations of these rocks’ diversity of characteristics wich accord it to the ratio of terrestrial, water or air component, but do not consider the fire component. The brothers ofal-Safa (9th century -10th century), also distinguished Smoothy solid magmatic rocks with Few plants, from soft superimposed sedimentary rocks (layer over layer), with many caves and a lot of plants, grasses and threes. Ibn Sina (11th century) also distinguished between sedimentary rocks (consisting of the essence with terrestrial predominant substance) andthe igneous rocks (consisting of the essence with water predominant). It seems that Al-Al-Dimashqui (8th century) was well aware that the formation of some rocks, is due to their exposition to very high temperature (such aswhite marble), where Extensive fire changes itsshape and its original stone appearance to take on a completely new look. Al-Jahidh said: "And tell me about the jewels ofthe Earth.. are they Something definitly created or earth turned to it (transformed)?". May be it is the first reference to metamorphic rocks. It is astatement that the rocks containing the gems, are not the "land" created by God, and then remained on their first creation; But they are rocks that can be changed and transformed. Muslim naturalists were fully aware of the many origins and categories of rocks. Itmay be possible to consider them as the founders of petrology in general and sedimentary rocks Science in particular. Especially In the works of Al-Bairouni (10th century -11th century), Al-Karkhi (11th century), the brothers of Al-Safa and Ibn Sina, witch presente a precise scientific speech, describing the processes of weathering, transport, sedimentation and what follows.

Adsorption of cationic dye from aqueous solution onto bentonite Maghnia, Fatiha Mahammedi, Arab. J. Chem. Environ. Res. 08 (2021) 83-96

1 Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry and Environment, Abou Bakr Belkaid University 13000 Tlemcen, Algeria; e-mail: mahafati_2006@yahoo.fr

Abstract
In this work, natural clay (BN) was studied for the removal of Basic dye from aqueous solution in batch system. The effects of initial VM concentration, contact time, solution temperature and solution pH on BN adsorption were investigated. The adsorbent was characterized by means of FTIR and XRD analysis. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, and isotherm models. The pseudo-first-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental data compared with pseudo-second-order kinetic adsorption models.  The thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy changes (∆G°), standard enthalpy change (∆H°) and standard entropy change (∆S°) were determined. Adsorption of VM on BN is exothermic and spontaneous in nature.

Review: Clinical pharmacology, therapeutic applications and clinical presentation of paracetamol and ibuprofen, H. EL Ouafy, T. EL Ouafy, M. Oubenali, M. Mbarki, A. EL Haimouti, M. Echajia, Arab. J. Chem. Environ. Res. 08 (2021) 97-113

1Laboratory of Organic and Analytical Chemistry, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Beni Mellal, Morocco ; Email : tarikelouafy@gmail.com
2 Laboratory of Organic and Analytical Chemistry, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Polydisciplinary Faculty, Khouribga, Morocco
3 Laboratory of Chemistry, Modeling and Environmental Sciences, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Polydisciplinary Faculty, Khouribga, Morocco

Abstract
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) represent one of the main therapeutic classes of molecules contaminating the environment. The main objective of this review was to seek information about ibuprofen and paracetamol when used as an antipyretic and analgesia in humans. NSAIDs inhibit the synthesis and the release of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid, acting as non-selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase enzymes, namely cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 isoforms. The therapeutic dose of paracetamol is 0.5-1 g in adults (maximum of 4 g/day) and 10-15 mg/kg every 4-6 hours in children. It is indicated for the symptomatic relief of fever, mild musculoskeletal pain, headache, migraine. The usual dose of ibuprofen is 400 to 800 mg three times a day. Ibuprofen is one of the most effective and widely used NSAIDs in the treatment of dental pain. Acute toxicity of NSAIDs occurs only at high, unrealistic concentrations, while sub-lethal effects arise also at low, environmentally relevant concentrations of all these drugs. Main outcome measures: adverse events requiring drug discontinuation; systemic reactions related to ibuprofen and paracetamol, clinical pharmacology with therapeutic applications, and analgesic effects of combinations with anti-inflammatory drugs and caffeine in non-cancer pain. Ibuprofen, paracetamol has gastrointestinal pharmacological profiles of renal symptoms, asthma, and adverse effects.

Cowpea husk adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet dye from aqueous solution, A. M. Ayuba and B. Idoko, Arab. J. Chem. Environ. Res. 08 (2021) 114-132(2021) 114-132

1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Bayero University, PMB 3011, Kano, Nigeria ; Email : ayubaabdullahi@buk.edu.ngr

Abstract
Cowpea husk (CPH) was used as a low cost, effective and environmental friendly adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet dye from wastewater. Batch adsorption studies were conducted under various optimized experimental conditions such as agitation time (90minutes), dye concentration (50mg/l), adsorbent dose (0.1g) and pH (6) respectively. The adsorbent surface was characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques, while the physical properties (bulk density, moisture content and pore volume) of the adsorbent were determined using standard reported methods. The adsorption data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models to propose the mechanism of the adsorption process. Equilibrium data fitted well to Langmuir isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity of 153.85mg/g and R2 value of 0.907 which is almost unity signifying a mechanism of chemical adsorption. Adsorption kinetic data were verified using pseudo first order, pseudo second order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models. The kinetic data were found to fit well with pseudo second order model. Thermodynamics of the adsorption process indicates the process to be feasible and spontaneous. This study recommends that CPH could be employed as a low-cost adsorbent as alternative to other expensive adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater.

Ancestral phytotherapeutic practices in Morocco: regards on history, current state, regulatory and safety of commonly used herbal medicine, M. Elachouri, L. Kharchoufa, J. Fakchich, Z. Lorigooini, P. Subhasis and M. Subhash,  Arab. J. Chem. Environ. Res. 08 (2021) 133-149

M. Elachouri1*, L. Kharchoufa1, J. Fakchich1, Z. Lorigooini2,
P. Subhasis3, and M. Subhash4

1Laboratory of Bioresources, Biotechnology, Ethnopharmacology and Health, URAC-40, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed First University, Oujda, Morocco
2Medical Plants Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.
3Graduate Department of Botany, Darjeeling Government. College, University of North Bengal, India
4Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India

Abstract
The apparent reversal of trend from western to herbal medicine is partly due to the fact that synthetic drugs have always shown adverse reactions and other undesirable side effects. This has led to the belief that natural products are safe because they are more harmonious with biological systems. Furthermore, medicinal plants were the original source of most medicines.  Many of the miracle drugs of today are molecules or variations on compounds that were originally extracted from medicinal plant species. In fact, various chemicals and biotechnological products are being screened by major multinational pharmaceutical industries in the hope of discovering new compounds for curing various health ailments. Indeed, Morocco, endowed with an immense range of climates, cultures, human and natural resources, has rich and ancient phytotherapeutic traditions. These various historical and cultural richness coupled to contemporary evolution allowed the development of a specific culture which intrinsically embodies a myriad of visibly distinct subcultures. It concerned various forms of cultures and belief from Paganism, Judaism, and Christianity to Islam. Based on bibliographical review of relevant documents published, including articles, review and books, we attempted to give a landscape on medicinal plants used by Moroccan people, while insisting on ethnobotanical investigations as a crucial step in development and valorization of natural products related to the human health care. Also, we tried to shed light on the current state, the history, the ethnobotany as well as the safety and regulatory of the traditional use of these herbs by Moroccan society. So, in the present paper, we tried to give an overview on the richness, and diversity of indigenous knowledge on traditional use of medicinal plants by people living in this country.

Phenolic content and antifungal activity of extracts from Acacia salicina L., F. Mezni, H. Khemiri, T. Khemiri and A. Khaldi,  Arab. J. Chem. Environ. Res. 08 (2021) 150-158

Laboratory of Management and Valorization of Forest Resources, National Institute for Researches on Rural Engineering, Water and Forests, INRGREF, BP 10 Ariana 2080, Tunisia

Abstract
This work aims to evaluate the total phenols content and the antifungal activity of different extracts of A. salicina. The work was carried out on ethanol and hexane extracts of the bark, flowers and leaves of Acacia salicina. Total phenols content was determined. Antifungal activity was tested against four strains; Alternaria alterna, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani. Ethanol extract from leaves exhibited the highest phenols content (0.74g GAE/ml). The lowest levels were recorded for hexane extract from leaves (0.3g GAE/ml). Statistical analyzes have shown that there is a highly significant difference between ethanolic and hexane extracts. Fusarium oxysporum was the most sensitive strain against A. salicina extracts.

Statistical analysis of the relationship between lightning activity and average surface wind speed, M. W. Onah, J. A. Adéchinan, F. K. Guédjé, H. Kougbéagbédè and E. B. Houngninou, Arab. J. Chem. Environ. Res. 08(2) (2021) 159-180

M. W. Onah1*, J. A. Adéchinan2 F. K. Guédjé1 H. Kougbéagbédè1 and E. B. Houngninou1

1Laboratoire de Physique de l’Atmosphère, Département de physique, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin

2Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Nationale des Sciences, Technologies, Ingénierie et Mathématiques, Bénin

Abstract
This paper analyses the yearly variability of data from three synoptic stations. These data are cross-referenced with the lightning data of the area. The resulting linear or polynomial regression models revealed the same description of the relationship between the mean number of lightning flashes and the mean surface wind speed. A correlation of 0.75, 0.89 and 0.90 is significantly established between the data from Kandi, Natitingou and Parakou stations respectively. A coefficient of determination of 0.56; 0.80 and 0.81 is significantly obtained respectively for these stations by linear regression and then 0.56; 0.84 and 0.85 by polynomial regression. The F-test showed that the fits of the two models are equal. However, the coefficient of determination is higher with the polynomial regression. All other things being equal, when the average surface wind speed increases by 1m/s, the average number of lightning bolts increases by 8400 according to Kandi, 12674 according to Natitingou and 8847 according to Parakou. More than 80% of the variability in the average number of lightning flashes is explained by the average surface wind speed.

The effect of flood on metal concentrations in sediments, case of the SebouEstuary, Morocco, H. Ait Bouh, A. Laissaoui, M. Benmansour, N. Ziad, J. L. Mas, S. Hurtado, M. Villa, Arab. J. Chem. Environ. Res. 08(2)(2021) 181-192

H.  Ait Bouh1, A. Laissaoui1, M. Benmansour1, N. Ziad2, J. L. Mas3, S. Hurtado4, M. Villa4

1Centre National de l’Energie, des Sciences et des Techniques Nucléaires (CNESTEN), B.P.1382 R.P., 10001 Rabat, Morocco. Email: haitbouh@gmail.com; laissaoui@cnesten.org.ma; benmansour@cnesten.org.ma

2Ecole Nationale des Sciences Appliquées, Université Ibn Tofail, Kenitra, Morocco. Email: nziad19@yahoo.fr.

3Escuela Politécnica Superior - Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. Email: ppmasb@us.es

4Centro de Investigación, Tecnología e Innovación, Universidad de Sevilla (CITIUS), Avda. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. Email: shurtado@us.es; mvilla@us.es.

Abstract
This work aims to characterize the chemical composition along the Sebou Estuary in the Kenitra region in Morocco following floods. Surface sediment samples were collected in April 2009, about 2 months after a flooding event. The concentrations of eleven elements (Fe, Mg, Mn, Co, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sr and V) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry. The results obtained make it possible to see that the chemical compositions present a negligible variation between sampling sites. The comparison with the quality standards makes it possible to distinguish two sources of pollution: natural (respect of quality standards) and anthropic (exceeding quality standards), the use of the correlation matrix and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has also identified a third source of mixed pollution. comparison with similar works as well as the application of PCA clearly show the strong relationship with floods that have occurred in the region in the winter of 2009, in particular on Mn (which is experiencing a strong increase following the leaching of soil and traces elements (low concentrations probably due to their transport by suspended particles), this is confirmed by the calculation of contamination factors. 

Removal of Pentachlorophenol (PCP) from Aqueous Solution using Canna indica L.: Kinetics, Isotherm and Thermodynamic Studies, C.E. Enyoh and B.O. Isiuku,  Arab. J. Chem. Environ. Res. 08(2) (2021) 193-213

C.E. Enyoh1* and B.O. Isiuku1

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Science. Imo State University, PMB 2000 Owerri, Nigeria. Email: cenyoh@gmail.com;

Abstract
In this study, the efficiency of Canna indica L in the removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aqueous solution using a hydroponic set-up was investigated. The evacuation proficiency increased with days and initial concentrations. The ideal removal pH was 4.0. The equilibrium data acquired were evaluated by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Elovich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The Langmuir model gave the best relationship with monolayer biosorption capacity of 40.89 mg/g. The pseudo-zero-order kinetics was able to describe the biosorption process. The intraparticle diffusion and liquid film diffusion was also used to study the removal process with the former showing the best fit. Thermodynamic modeling using the standard free energy (ΔGo) indicated that the process was spontaneous with -12589.18 kJ/mol. The PCP residual factors (0.09 to 0.35) were highest in 25th day indicating high efficiency of C. indica. C. indica used in this study is eco-friendly, widely available and offers greater potential for wastewater treatment for removal of chlorinated pollutants such as PCP from aqueous solutions. The PCP residual factors (0.09 to 0.35) were most noteworthy in 25th day showing high productivity of C. indica L. According to this study, C. indica L. could prove to be a promising low cost phytoremediator of chorophenols in aqueous solutions.

Green process development of herbal and/upstream phytochemical products in drug discovery and development cycle, U. A. Isah, I. M. Bugaje, I. A. Muhammad-Dabo, and H. Nuhu,  Arab. J. Chem. Environ. Res. 08(2) (2021) 214-235

Umar Abubakar Isah 1*, Idris Muhammad Bugaje2 , Ibrahim Ali Muhammad-Dabo3 , and Hadiza Nuhu4

1Product and Process Development (PPD) Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

2Office of the Rector, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria.

3Petroleum and Renewable Energy (PRE) Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

4Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

. Email: iaumar@abu.edu.ng;

Abstract
Herbal, phytochemical, pharmaceutical and related products are produced in batch or/and semi-batch mode. This differs from commodity products that are obtained in large quantities from petroleum, chemical, and petrochemical industries, which operate in continuous mode, as intermediates to other manufacturing firms. Batch and semi-batch processes are always dynamic in nature, and that creates additional challenges in their product and process scheduling, design, and optimization. These processes are best described with batch process simulators that can handle sequencing of events and time-dependency. This study presents the techniques for batch process development, and demonstrates how green process for herbal and/or upstream phytochemical products can be developed through modelling, simulation, and validation before fabrication and commissioning. It examines green process development of a pilot plant for the production of anti-malarial powdered extract from raw Herb 25 (NAFDAC Reg. No: NRN-A7-0155L) as a case study. The process was modelled and simulated with the aid of SuperPro Designer® version 7.0, a batch process simulator and scheduling tool, and validated using existing equipment. It was found that the use of process simulation (PS) and production scheduling tools can facilitate and hasten the green process development for herbal and/or upstream phytochemical products. From the simulation results, the profitability analysis has shown the debottlenecking scheme II process model to have a better return on investment (ROI) of 65.68% and payback time of 1.52 years.